What Are The Controls Affecting The Climate Of India?
Being a geographically and topographically unique country, there are a plethora of controls affecting the climate of India. Nevertheless there are 6 most outstanding factors affecting the climate of India. These can be seen as:
- What Are The Controls Affecting The Climate Of India?
1. Latitude: India is a tropical country for the ‘Tropic Of Cancer’ which is a 231/20 East – West Latitude divide the country into approximately 2 parts. The Tropic of Cancer runs from the Rann Of Kuchch in Gujarat to Mizoram in the east. The country is roughly divided between 2 parts climatically. One half i.e. peninsular part has a humid climate while the northern part has a subtropical climate.
2. Altitude: The presence of the Himalayas in the northern parts of India has a profound impact on the climate of India. The average altitude of the Himalayas is 6000 meters. This height acts as a blessing as it blocks the cold winds from Central Asia. As a result the Indian Subcontinent receives milder winters. Not only this the Himalayas are also instrumental in the onset of the retreating monsoon in India.
3. Pressure and wind system: Due to the tropical location of the Indian subcontinent, Indian landmass is intensely heated during the summer season. Due to this a low pressure zone is created and it starts attracting the moisture laden winds from the Indian Ocean and the Arabian sea. This process has a profound impact on the climate of India as it initiates the onset of monsoon season.
4. Ocean currents: The warm ocean currents in the Indian Ocean warm up the surface water by which it easily evaporates. The evaporation process forms the clouds that eventually rain on the Indian subcontinent affecting the climate of India. The currents in the Indian ocean happen to be important controls affecting the climate of India. The warm Agulhas current and the cold Benguela current have a major influence on the climate of India. The warm waters of the Indian Ocean also contribute to the formation of cyclones and hurricanes that affect the coastal regions of the country.
More Points On Controls Affecting Climate Of India
5. Distance from the sea: India has 7500 km of coastline. Thus the presence of sea around the subcontinent profoundly impacts the climate of India. The regions closer to the sea witness humid climate almost throughout the year. While the interior areas have relatively harsh summers or winters depending upon the latitudinal position.
6. Relief feature: India being a vast country has a variety of relief features. It has tall mountains, deserts, forests, valleys, plains etc. All these combined with the pressure and wind system create a variety of weather patterns and affect the climate of India.
7. Topography: It means the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area. This includes relief features like mountains, rivers, craters, plains, plateaus etc. Since India has a variety of these features, thus topography is one of the important controls affecting climates of India. The Himalayas in the north prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the country. In peninsular India, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats play an important role in the climate of peninsular India.
8. Monsoon Winds: Monsoon also is also amongst the significant controls affecting the climate of India. The monsoons are caused by the shifting of ITCZ above the equator. This shifting in turn causes the reversing of North Easterly Trade Winds. There are two main monsoon seasons in India: the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon.
- The southwest monsoon occurs from June to September and brings rain to most parts of the country. The monsoon winds are caused by the differential heating of land and sea. These winds blow from the southwest towards the northeast. The monsoons are critical to India’s agriculture, as most of the country’s crops rely on the rain brought by the monsoons.
- The northeast monsoon occurs from October to December and brings rain to the southern and eastern coasts of the country. These areas are on the Lee side during the Southwest Monsoon Season. The monsoon winds blow from the northeast towards the southwest, and they are caused by the cooling of the landmass during the winter months.
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Climate Zones And Controls Affecting Climate Of India
The diverse climate zones of India are themselves amongst the important climate zones affecting the climate of India.
India can be divided into six main climate zones, each with its own distinct weather patterns:
- Tropical wet: This zone includes the western coast of India, where heavy rainfall is received throughout the year.
- Tropical wet and dry: This zone includes most of central India, where the rainfall is seasonal and varies greatly from year to year.
- Semiarid: This zone includes the north western part of India, where the rainfall is low and sporadic.
- Arid: This zone includes the western part of Rajasthan, where the rainfall is extremely low and the temperatures are high.
- Humid subtropical: This zone includes the northern part of India, where the winters are cold and the summers are hot and humid.
- Alpine: This zone includes the Himalayan mountain range, where the temperatures are cold and the rainfall is heavy.
Climate Change And Controls Affecting Climate Of India
Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on India’s climate in the coming decades thus becoming one of the important controls affecting climate of India. The country is already experiencing the effects of global warming, including rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and more frequent and intense weather events such as cyclones and hurricanes.
Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on India’s agriculture, which is the primary source of livelihood for millions of people in the country. Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns can affect crop yields and lead to food insecurity, particularly in the already vulnerable regions of the country.
Climate change is also expected to impact the availability of water in India. The country is heavily dependent on its rivers and groundwater for agriculture and domestic use, and changes in rainfall patterns and glacial melt can affect the availability of water resources. This can lead to conflicts between different regions and communities over access to water.
In addition to its impacts on agriculture and water resources, climate change is also expected to affect public health in India. Rising temperatures can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria, while changes in rainfall patterns can lead to waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
To address the challenges posed by climate change, the Indian government has taken several measures in recent years. These include the adoption of the National Action Plan on Climate Change, the promotion of renewable energy, and the implementation of various adaptation measures such as the construction of water harvesting structures and the development of drought-resistant crop varieties.
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In conclusion, the controls affecting the climate of India are influenced by a range of factors, including latitude, pressure and wind system, geography, topography, ocean currents, and monsoon winds. The country’s diverse climate zones, ranging from tropical wet to alpine, are home to a rich variety of flora and fauna, and support the livelihoods of millions of people. These controls have an effect on vegetation of India as well.
However, climate change poses a significant threat to the country’s environment, economy, and public health. Rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and more frequent and intense weather events are already affecting the country, and are expected to have even greater impacts in the coming years.
What are the controls affecting the climate of any place?
Controls affecting the climate of India or any place can be seen as: Topography, ocean currents, distance from the sea, latitudinal position etc.
What is the control on the climate system?
Being a geographically and topographically unique country, there are a plethora of controls affecting the climate of India. Nevertheless there are 6 most outstanding factors affecting the climate of India.